Undue fluoride is recited in all atmospheric domains including water throughout the globe especially Indian continent where utmost region endangered endemic fluorosis. Indeed fluoride contaminations in air, water and land are derived through assorted causes viz; granite rocks dissolution, percolations during rains and manmade activities. Such high fluoride pollution poses acute toxicity in nature along with detrimental effects on health like bone/dental deformations, skeletal and Non skeletal fluorosis, even damage to male reproductive system. Rampant fluorosis raised due to excessive fluoride contaminations gets mitigated through viably developed de-fluoridation/fluoride removal water purification techniques. Subsequently assorted technologies are developed for water fluoride removal/defluoridation viz; adsorption, precipitation, coagulation, ion-exchange, electrolyticdialation/ electrodialysis and membrane-separations, yet crisis are unresolved. This research is an overview of fluoride and its toxicological profile and pollution aspects besides remedial solutions like fluoride exclusion by means of holy basil/ tulasi leaves, crush limestone and other prominent fluoride adsorbents also its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. State-of-the-art fluoride removal technologies are summarized that aids to reduce excess fluoride contaminations in the water.
Rajendra S Dongre